History of glass

Introduction

Glass is defined as an inorganic product that has cooled to a rigid state, without experiencing crystallization. It is a material that, since the origins of Humanity, has always been linked to man, fulfilling a double function: on the one hand, it has served as an element of utility for the progress of different societies; and on the other, as a decorative motive with which man has expressed his artistic and creative concerns.

Many ancient authors wrote about glass. Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD), for example, narrated in his "Natural History" that the discovery of this material took place in Syria, when merchants from Natron, probably en route to Egypt, prepared their food next to the Belus River , in Phenicia. When they did not find stones to place their pots, they put pieces of the natron they carried as cargo, and the next morning they saw how the stones had melted and their reaction with the sand had produced a bright, vitreous material, similar to an artificial stone. Such was, in short, the origin of glass.

But the truth is that this material was already known since long before and it is possible that it has been "invented" in more than one place, because remains of glass have been found in areas of Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt dating back to about 5,000 years BC and that, it seems, were nothing more than other enamels that were used to decorate ceramic objects. The first objects composed entirely of glass that have been found date from 2,100 BC, with which a technique similar to that of ceramics was used: molding.

It was the Egyptians who would most encourage the use of glass as decorative and household material for the conservation and storage of certain products. Until the Middle Ages the use of glass was in the hands of a privileged few, who kept their composition and manufacturing secret. Glass became an object of luxury used both for decoration and for the conservation, transport and storage of food, medicines, oils, etc. In fact, the glassmaker's trade was the only one to which the nobility could surrender in France during this time.

As a glass container, thanks to its specific qualities, together with ceramics, it is the oldest and most widely used material for the preservation and storage of its products. Thus, since the beginning of civilization it has served as a container for wines, oils, perfumes and medicines, but it is from the seventeenth century when its use is widespread, due largely to the cork stopper, which gives it one of its main qualities, the tightness.

A century and a half later, in 1790, the French Government announced that it would offer a grand prize to those who discovered a practical method of preserving food for some time to serve as a diet for Napoleon's soldiers, at war throughout Europe for those dates The researcher Nicolás Appert came up with the solution: he observed that certain foods packed in glass jars, sealed and subsequently heated, retained their intact characteristics and were not altered, and could be preserved indefinitely. The food industry was born at that time.

Until the twentieth century, the manufacture of glass containers was done by hand. In the first years of 1900, after numerous investigations, the first machine for the automatic manufacturing and mass production of glass containers was created. A few years later, in 1925, an "Individual Sections" machine was started up, which had four sections, going later to five and then to six. Currently, there are machines with 20 sections that allow to manufacture 800,000 bottles and jars in one day.

The main components that are currently involved in the manufacturing process of glass containers come from nature. They are quality raw materials, which will give life to a container that adds all the remarkable characteristics of the ingredients that make it up. They exist in nature in large proportions and are easy to extract, ensuring minimal ecological impact. In addition, the technological processes applied in the manufacturing process of glass containers, have caused a constant decrease in the extraction of raw materials.

This reduction is due to the progressive use of the glass hull (recycled glass, coming from containers that have completed their life cycle) for the manufacture of containers. The fact that the glass container can be 100% recycled - integral recycling - allows the non-generation of waste - recycled container, new manufactured container - and contributes to the improvement and defense of the environment.

In general, the main raw materials used for the manufacture of glass containers are, in addition to the aforementioned glass, sand, limestone and soda hull, being able to be classified into the following groups:

  • Vitrifying agents:  These substances represent, as a whole, the main component and, basically, are responsible for the creation of the vitreous network.
  • Fluxes:  Components that favor the formation of glass, lowering its melting temperature and facilitating its elaboration.
  • Stabilizers:  These elements help reduce the tendency to devitrification.
  • Secondary Components: In this section the tuners, dyes, bleaching, opacifying, etc. would be framed.

Juvasa container and bottle manufacturers

Juvasa, expert manufacturers of glass, glass and plastic containers and bottles, shows you in this section of the History of Glass what manufacturing process these products follow that shape the axis of their exciting work.

Packaging Manufacturing Process

To better understand the work of the manufacturers of glass bottles and bottles, it is important to know that the manufacturing process of these containers begins when the raw materials are mixed and automatically driven to the melting furnace, at temperatures close to 1,600 degrees Celsius, approximately .

The ovens of these manufacturers of bottles and containers work continuously for 24 hours a day and 365 (366) days a year, during the process of their life, which is 8 or 9 years. In it, raw materials (including glass containers from recycling) enter at one end (enforne) and leave, once molten and conditioned, at the other end, through several arms (feeders) at the end of which and under them, are the machines, which produce the new containers.

The molten glass and conditioned in the feeders (glass heating / cooling channels) for the type of glass containers to be manufactured, and at a temperature close to 1000 degrees Celsius, is cut into drops (pieces of glass, of equal weight to the one of the container) and distributed to the different molds that own the manufacturing machine, where by means of a series of pressure, pressing and vacuum processes, the new containers (bottles or jars) are shaped.

The two techniques of the manufacturers of containers and bottles:

Blow-blown: commonly used by bottle manufacturers. This technique is based on the use of a punch that forms a small cavity in the mass of molten glass (glass drop); This cavity is subsequently expanded by compressed air. When expanding, the drop is forced to adopt a certain configuration that corresponds to the preliminary mold that, by its design, will give the ideal delivery of the glass creating a semi-shaped bottle, called parisón or preliminary. Next, this parison is transferred to the terminator mold that will give the final shape to the container, using compressed air and vacuum.

Pressing-blowing: widely used by packaging manufacturers as it was initially developed for wide-mouth containers (jars). Currently it is also used for narrow mouth containers (bottles) to obtain better control in the distribution of glass.

Pressing-blowing by the manufacturers of containers and bottles begins with the use of a relatively long punch, which forms an inner cavity in the drop, pressing the glass against the surface of the preliminary mold so that the space occupied by the punch corresponds to the air bubble formed by the first blow of the traditional system.

This shape of the parison is also transferred by the manufacturers of bottles and containers to the terminator mold where, with the help of compressed and empty air, it is expanded in a simple and more uniform way to the final shape of the container.

The machines used by the manufacturers of containers and bottles are usually longitudinal of type IS constituted by several sections that work independently, and that can stop one or several of them, while the others continue producing. Normally, they consist of 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 or 20 sections and, each of them, can work in SG (single drop or one container per section), DG (double drop or two containers per section) and TG ( triple drop or three containers per section).

Once the glass bottle or jar is manufactured, even at an elevated temperature, it is introduced into an annealing tunnel (archa) - to avoid the formation of internal tensions due to rapid cooling - with controlled temperatures. The containers pass through this tunnel slowly being reheated and subsequently cooled in a predetermined manner. Thus, the glass acquires a greater degree of resistance.

At the exit of the annealing arc, the packaging manufacturers treat them on their outer face to reduce the coefficient of friction between them, and allow easy sliding along the inspection lines and automatic packaging. At the end of the annealing arc, an aligner distributes the containers to the different inspection and transport lines.

On these lines a series of electronic machines control 100% of the containers and eliminate those that do not meet the expected quality requirements. Usually they are optoelectronic machines that are responsible for carrying out dimensional and functional controls of the container:

  • fragile or prevent its tightness.
  • To eliminate those containers whose external profile does not correspond to the theoretical one.
  • To eliminate containers whose minimum wall thickness does not meet the theoretical value, to ensure its resistance, against mechanical shocks.
  • Reading systems of the mold numbers from an identification code to associate each defect with the corresponding mold.

All these machines used are linked to a computer, where all the information is stored and processed.

Given the high number of containers produced annually by the manufacturers of containers and bottles, these machines carry out a control process, which would be impossible today to 100% with people and with a much higher degree of effectiveness. The human control is carried out by highly specialized personnel, on the effectiveness at all times of the machines and this control and measure of their effectiveness, is what determines whether the containers produced are accepted or rejected.

Finally, and at the end of the inspection machines, there are the machines to pack the production (palletizers), which once palletized, is covered with a plastic (polyethylene) shrink sleeve and passed through a shrink tunnel or Retractable frame that contracts the cover on the containers, and with them protects them from a subsequent entry of dust or other element, during storage and transport.

products

In general, the main parts of a glass container are mouth, neck, shoulder, body, heel, bottom and sting (concave surface inside the bottom). Depending on the mouth and the usefulness of the containers, two large families can be distinguished:

Bottles:  generally intended to contain liquid products, among which are:

  • Waters
  • Oils
  • Snacks (with and without alcohol)
  • Refreshing drinks
  • Cavas
  • Beers
  • Dairy products
  • Spirits
  • Musts
  • Cider
  • Vinegars
  • Wines

Jars:  designed for solid and semi-solid foods, for the following products:

  • Olives and pickles
  • Baby food
  • Canned food (fish and vegetables)
  • Dairy Products
  • Spices
  • Vegetables
  • Jams and syrups
  • Pate
  • Ready meals
  • Desserts
  • Sauces
  • Juices

Qualities

Glass, as a packaging material has the following advantages:

  • Part of abundant raw materials in nature.
  • It is chemically inert against liquids and food products not posing compatibility problems.
  • Hygienic that has easy cleaning and is sterilizable.
  • It is odorless, does not transmit tastes or modify them.
  • It guarantees the organoleptic and flavor properties of the food.
  • It is transparent.
  • Possibility of using anti-glass glass that prevents ultraviolet radiation from damaging the product.
  • It is rigid and resistant to internal pressures, as well as high temperatures.
  • Microwave compatible
  • Impervious to gases, vapors and liquids, which guarantees the preservation and vitamins of the food even in prolonged storage.
  • Moldable, with versatility of shapes and colors.
  • Preformed and customized containers.
  • 100% recyclable

Design

In a world of increasing competition, the package is called to play, from the commercial side, an increasingly important role. For this reason, providing a product with its own personality through the packaging is one of the keys to differentiate it from the competition.

All the products project an image to the outside, being of vital importance the visual impact that these transmit to the consumer. This fact will be decisive when making your purchase, so it is essential to analyze, study and design a container adapted to the audience to which it is intended.

The glass container has an important mission, to serve as a marketing element, as a means of communication, sales and image of the brand and the product. This point is becoming increasingly important, especially if one takes into account the tendency to increase sales in self-services, where the packaging is alone and has to replace the work previously performed by the seller. Therefore, the package is an essential element of brand identity and, therefore, of its power of seduction.

Designing is innovating, it is the search for an idea that satisfies the consumer in the best possible way and that also differentiates us from the competition. In this sense, the glass industry is prepared to face a market, such as Food, which is constantly evolving and requires innovative solutions.

For this, it has Research and Development Centers, supported by new technologies, which are dedicated exclusively to the evolution of glass containers. Some centers that have the best professionals specialized in offering solutions according to the needs of the food and beverage markets.

The glass, with its possibilities of colors, shapes, textures and decoration options offers multiple possibilities for the brand to acquire a unique identity that is easily identifiable by the consumer. Moreover, thanks to its technological improvements and the constant development of the products, the glass container adds value to the product it contains, providing innovation and differentiation through color, shape and decoration.

The color improves the identification of the product, reinforces the brand image and the positioning of the product and provides a more marked personality, increasing its ability to attract linear. Blue, green, amber, crystalline ... the color brings personality and character to the product.

Screen printing, or direct printing on the bottle, gives a crisp and refined appearance to the packaging. The quality and durability of the decoration are also vectors of the stable character of the product. From the simplest to the most complex, the printing process allows for very diverse decorations that give the product a clear brand identity.

Engraving personalizes the glass container by integrating graphics, textures or images into the design. All of them are elements that highlight the strategic graphic characteristics, such as logos or certificates of origin, increasing the attractiveness of the product and complementing the integral design of the package.

Finally, labeling is a clear support for transmitting information about the product. Simple or complex, small or large, straight or curved, the design possibilities are very wide facilitating the recognition of the product in the linear.

Closures

The closure is a fundamental element to ensure the tightness of the container and the glass has a wide variety that adapt to all needs:

  • Crown plugs
  • Thread
  • Pilferproof
  • Cork
  • Eurocap
  • Pry-off
  • Twist off
  • Press twist

Recycled glass containers

The recycling process of glass containers begins with the selective collection of glass at the source, that is, before its incorporation into the garbage.

This selective collection of glass containers is made by special containers in which the residents of each municipality voluntarily deposit the used glass containers.

The igloos are collected periodically, taking the glass to the treatment plants. In these plants the glass is cleaned and crushed, conditioning it to a granulometry, which will give; As a result, the helmet or calcine, which will serve as raw material for the manufacture of new glass containers.

Once the hull has become raw material, it is moved to the glass container factories where, mixing with the rest of the raw materials, it melts in the furnaces to produce new glass containers with exactly the same characteristics of the originals Thus, the material has been 100% used, has not suffered losses in the process and is used to manufacture the same product.

Therefore, it is affirmed that the glass packaging recycling system is totally environmentally friendly, since it has an integral recycling, closing the packaging -> consumption -> recycling -> packaging cycle, indefinitely in time .

The recycling system of glass containers is totally environmentally friendly, and provides a series of additional ecological benefits such as the reduction of erosions produced in the search and extraction of raw materials, energy savings both in the fusion of the glass as in the extraction and conditioning of these materials - for every ton of recycled hull there is a saving of 1,200 kg. of raw materials, 130 kg of fuel and 1,000 kg of municipal solid waste for the municipalities - and the reduction of the wild presence of glass containers in our environment.

Although the main raw materials for the manufacture of glass containers are renewable and easily removable, the hull or recycled glass advantageously replaces them, so there is an ecological service when we introduce empty containers into igloos.

As regards the energy savings generated by the recycling of glass containers, it comes from the energy that is not necessary to supply for the extraction, treatment and transport of raw materials - as it has already been seen, they will be replaced -, as in the manufacture of the container, as it is necessary to provide less heat for the fusion.

Food and Juices - Glass jars and jars

Glass jars guarantee the freshness of food and, therefore, optimal preservation for longer. In addition, in Juvasa we offer different formats in glass jars depending on the food that each company wants to pack.

In the industrial food sector there are a number of factors that are decisive when choosing containers for food packaging: bottles of cristas, jars and jars of glass, plastic, etc.

The characteristics of glass jars are the most appropriate for proper conservation.

The color of the glass, the mouths, the size and shape of the glass jars add value to the final product, in the form of a special presentation.

For the preparation of jams, desserts, sauces, pates, canned vegetables, canned fruit or fish, the best containers are glass jars. For the packaging of juices the glass bottles are the most appropriate to show the colorful attractiveness of the fruits.

The benefits of glass jars are obvious:

  • The glass boats are transparent, they allow you to see the product it contains.
  • They are made of a harmless material that does not alter food.
  • Thanks to their efficient closing systems, they keep the product longer.
  • The jars, jars and glass jars are 100% recyclable, it is the most ecological container.
  • They can be created in a multitude of shapes and sizes that will differentiate the product.
  • They adapt to the manufacturing, packaging and labeling lines of the producer.
  • They are resistant to manipulations.
  • The glass container is synonymous with quality.

Juvasa offers innovation, creativity and distinction in glass containers for food and glass bottles juices at the best prices.

In this section you will find:

  • Jars, jars, canned glass jars
  • Glass juice cans

Glass and glass bottles: Oils and Vinegars

In Juvasa we offer glass and glass bottles for oils, informing you of what format or material is most recommended in each case.

Glass bottles for oils and vinegars respond to particular characteristics in shape, color and height that can contribute to creating brand branding alone. In a company an exclusive design is a guarantee of sales.

Glass bottles for oils preserve and protect the properties of the oil in order not to spoil its natural conditions, taking into account that many factors increase the process of oxidation and oil thickening.

Those skilled in the art recommend glass bottles for opaque oils to protect liquid gold from light, although transparent glass bottles sell the product better. Ultraviolet rays should be prevented from damaging the oil by protecting the bottle in cardboard containers.

The closing system of the bottles must prevent the oil from coming into contact with the air.

To pack vinegar the glass bottle is one of the best containers that can be used. Crystal is a material that does not give up foreign substances to the product and does not alter its quality.

Juvasa offers glass bottles for oils and vinegars in many capacities and designs. From standard models to the most exclusive.

The mouths of the new empty bottles for oils and vinegars are adapted to the different caps used. We can advise you to choose the appropriate format to improve the presentation of your products.

In Juvasa we offer you more than 20 glass bottles for oils and vinegars.

Glass and glass bottles: Wines, champagnes and spirits

In Juvasa it offers you an extensive catalog of glass and glass bottles for Bordeaux, Burgundy, rhines, for cava, etc.

Glass bottles for wine. Glass is an irreplaceable material in the packaging of wines, champagnes, spirits, refreshing and sparkling drinks.

The consumer associates a glass bottle for wine and soft drinks with a “good product”, so much so that the American multinational Coca-Cola has repackaged its well-known soda in the traditional glass bottle.

The glass bottle is one of the most common containers in the food industry. The main advantage of glass bottles for wine over other packaging systems is a better preservation of the product, especially in prolonged storage.

The factors that must be taken into account when choosing the ideal container for spirits are several:

  • The size of glass bottles for wine is an important factor that will protect the broth from oxidation, the larger the size, the less oxidation.
  • The shape of the glass bottle for wine will be decisive at the time of marketing and storage. The design of wine bottles has evolved as packaging has gained importance in increasing sales.
  • The color will determine the protection of the ambient luminosity or show all the richness of nuances of the wines.
  • The thickness of the glass, will cushion the shocks and prevent the pitting.
  • The mouthpiece and the neck will determine the type of cork.
  • And finally the closure system to ensure the tightness of the bottles.
  • In our catalog you will find the most complete variety of glass bottles for wine and glass for wine, champagnes and spirits, Bordeaux, burgundy, rhines, fine, cavas as well as a large assortment of closing systems.

The versatility of glass containers

Glass containers have a series of qualities that make them perfect containers: they are inert, hygienic, resistant, transparent, hermetic, non-deformable, waterproof and keep intact all the qualities of the product.

The producers of the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, industrial, liquor and food sector choose glass and glass containers for their versatility.

Within the food industry, glass bottles for wine, champagne, beers, juices and glass containers for canning stand out.

In Juvasa we manage a wide and assorted range of glass containers and glass containers. We serve packaging in all formats, capacities and designs, with effective delivery and competitive prices.

Our company thinks about the producer, the final consumer and the environment.

We take into account factors that help sell the producer making the packaged product more attractive, thinking about the design, the color and the weight, knowing that the final purchase decision is influenced by the presentation of the package.

The consumer values ​​in the glass containers and glass containers the ease of opening, the right size, ergonomics and an adequate relationship between quality and price.

The environment benefits from the recycling of glass containers and glass containers avoiding the emission of tons of CO2 into the atmosphere responsible for global warming. In the last 10 years, more than 2 million tons of glass have been recycled.

Crystal container is synonymous with quality, aesthetics, functionality and recyclability.

In our online store you will find a complete list with additional information of all our glass and glass containers.

The most romantic three-dimensional puzzle toy is the Rubiks cube. Learn the simplest form of cube solution.

This website uses own and third-party cookies to enhance our services and collect information about your browsing habits.
If you press "OK" or continue browsing, we shall understand that you accept the use and installation of cookies on your computer or device.
You will find more information on our Cookies Policy.